Microsoft has made it possible to download free apps from the Windows Store without using a Microsoft account. Other requirements to download apps without an account is that the app doesn’t have specific age restrictions and that Windows 10 update KB 3200970 is installed.
The German website Heise tested the download of free apps without a Microsoft account and found it to work on a Lumia 550 with Windows 10 Mobile and, despite other reports, also on a desktop running Windows 10 Home Edition.
As mentioned, downloading apps without a Microsoft account does have some restrictions. In a short test, a Microsoft account was still required to download apps with an age rating of 16-18 years and older. Users also need to login when downloading paid apps and for in app purchases in free apps.
In case data is not synchronized through e.g. a Google or Facebook account, app data is not synchronized between multiple devices.
Heise also mentions that the test failed on a computer where an user previously logged in to the store with a Microsoft account and then logged out. Even removing the Microsoft account in the settings (Accounts -> Email and App accounts) didn’t solve it, a Microsoft account was still required even for downloading free apps.
The required KB 3200970 was released on the 8th of November and fixed several security issues.