Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

Myce/OakGate 4K Read and Write Latency Tests and Quality of Service

These tests steadily increase the random 4K IO demand in
terms of IOPS, and report the drive’s response in terms of Average IOPS, Average
Latency and Maximum Latency. We also use the detailed Latency results for each
IOPS level to extract Quality of Service data.  It is designed to show a
drive’s maximum IOPS capability and report the all important Latency numbers
for each level of IOPS demanded.  The Maximum latency numbers give us an
insight into the occurrence of Latency peaks that could cause an unexpected
response from time to time.  Please note that these tests were run at a Queue
Depth of 256.

Firstly, here are the results for the initial
Pre-Conditioning step (4K Random Writes) –

Myce/OakGate 4K Read and Write Latency Tests
Preconditioning –

 

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

Please note that the 4K Random Writes were preceded by a
pre-fill step, which performed 128K sequential writes to twice the drive’s
capacity (to facilitate the achievement of a steady state). 

 


4K Latency Read Test

Myce/OakGate 4K Read Latency Test

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

You can see
that the increase in IOPS demand can no longer be met beyond 630,000 IOPS.

For interest,
let’s have a look at the 640,000 IOPS demand point more closely –

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

You can see
that the Read IOPS is peaking at around 630,000.

 

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

Here you can see that Power consumption gradually increases
as the IOPS demand increases.

 

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

We can see that read latency remains below 210 microseconds
all the way up to its maximum IOPS level. This is an outstanding result. 

 

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

There are no notable Maximum Latency spikes.

For interest let’s a close look at the distribution of the
Latency results at the 400,000 IOPS level –

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

As this is the first time in this review, that we are
looking at a High Resolution Latency Histogram, here’s an explanation – The X
axis to the left is the count of the IOs in the observation period (in a Round)
that had a Latency of the value along the Y axis (please note that the X axis
is logarithmic to allow the low order counts of the huge number of IOs that
have been measured to be visible); the Y axis is the Latency value measured in
Microseconds; The X axis to the right is the % of the Total IOs observed that
have a Latency <= to a given Latency value; the rate of getting to 100% is
highlighted by the red graph line.

We can see that 99.9% of the Latency values are <= 290 Microseconds
and there are remarkably few outliers – the Quality of Service as measured in
this test is outstanding.


4K Latency Write Test

Myce/OakGate 4K Write Latency Test

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

 

You can see
that the increase in IOPS demand can no longer be met beyond 150,000.

For interest,
let’s have a look at the 160,000 IOPS demand point more closely –

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

 

Interestingly,
the drive sustains the demand of 160,000 for the first 55-60 seconds before it
falls back to around 150,000.

For interest,
let’s have a look at the 170,000 IOPS demand point –

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

You can see
that the drive is now consistently falling short of the demand.

 

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

Here you can see that power consumption increases gradually
as the IOPS demand increases.

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

Here we can see that Average Write Latency stays below 50 microseconds
all the way up to a demand of 120,000 – an outstanding result.

 

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

There are no notable Maximum Latency peaks.

So let’s have a look at the distribution of the Latency
Values at the 100,000 IOPS level –

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

We can see that 99.9% of the Latency Values are <= 380 Microseconds,
and there is only a relatively small number of outliers. This is an outstanding
result.  


Quality of Service

Quality of Service (QoS) of an SSD consists of the
predictability of low latency (and consistency of high IOPS) while servicing a
particular IO workload. This means the latency needs to be within a specified
range without having unexpected outliers.

QoS of an SSD is most often measured as the latency achieved
for a workload for a specified percentage of the time.  An SSD that has a lower
latency for a percentage will exhibit a superior level of performance
predictability. QoS is most often measured (and specified by Manufacturers) for
4K Random Reads and Writes at a Queue Depth of 1 and/or 32.

Commonly the cause of an outlier is the background tasks
performed by an SSD’s controller, such as required to reclaim spare space and
to perform wear levelling, which may consume much of an SSD’s bandwidth
temporarily starving host IOs thus causing significant latency variation.

It is also important to note that QoS will vary depending
upon the level of IOs (IOPS) being serviced. Not surprisingly, as the IOPS
level increases the QoS generally drops (though there could be exceptions to
this, for example, if an SSD’s controller initiates background processes when
it is less busy the occurrence of outliers may actually be greater at lower
levels of demand)

Let’s have a closer look at the Quality of Service delivered
by the Intel DC P4510.

From the above test for 4K Random Reads I have extracted the
95th, 99th, 99.9th and 99.999th
percentile Latency values for levels of IOPS demand in the range of 50,000
through 600,000 IOPS, in increments of 50,000 IOPs, and charted them below. 
The Latency Value (percentile rank) for the 95th percentile is the
Latency that 95% of all IOs fall within (and similarly for the 99th,
99.9th and 99.999th percentiles).  The percentiles are a
measure of the drives consistency in the delivery of its performance.  Here are
the results for Random 4K Reads –   

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

 

The Quality of Service at the given IOPS levels can then be
compared to that achieved by other drives.  For example, here are the values
for the outstanding Micron 9100 Max –

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

Please note that the Micron 9100 Max meets a higher level of
IOPS demand, up to 750,000

Let’s directly compare the 99.999% and 99.9% percentiles for
the Intel DC P4510 and Micron 9100 Max –

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

You can see that for the most demanding 99.999% percentile
the Intel DC P4510 is higher (worse) than the Micron 9100 Max.

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

Here you can see that at the 99.9% percentile the Intel DC
P4510 is consistently lower (better) than the Micron 9100 Max.

 

Similarly, for 4K Random Writes I have extracted the 95th,
99th, 99.9th and 99.999th percentile Latency
values for the range of 50,000 through 150,000 IOPS, in increments of 50,000
IOPs, and charted them as follows –

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

These are excellent results.

Now, let’s compare them to the results that we recorded for
the Micron 9100 Max –

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

Please note that the Micron 9100 Max meets a higher level of
Write IOPS demand, up to 300,000.

Let’s directly compare the 99.999% and 99.9% percentiles for
the Intel DC P4510 and Micron 9100 Max –

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

You can see the Micron 9100 Max is consistently lower than
the Intel DC P4510.  

Intel DC P4510 8TB NVMe Enterprise SSD Review

Again, you can see the Micron 9100 Max is consistently lower
than the Intel DC P4510.

Now let’s head to the next page, to look at the results
for the Myce/Oakgate Reads and Writes Tests…..